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Set an Observation#

This section describes how to set an Observation in your Azure IoT Central application.

Setting an Observation lets your devices know what value changes and for what particular resources they need to notify you about. An Observation can be set for any or all the components of the data model: objects, objects instances, and resources. Whenever there is a change in values, a device will send a Notify message to Coiote DM, which in turn will transfer it to Azure IoT Central.

In this section, you learn how to:

  • Assign a device template that acts as a translator between Coiote DM and Azure IoT Central
  • Create a device group in Azure IoT Central, because an Observation is set at the group level
  • Run Jobs to add, edit or delete Observations
  • See value changes for the observed resources


  1. An active Azure IoT Central with hub owner access permissions.
  2. A Coiote DM user account with permissions to use the integration extension.
  3. A device group created in Coiote DM.
  4. A configured extension between Coiote DM and Azure Iot Central.
  5. A configured integration template in Coiote DM, assigned to the device group.
  6. A connected device.

Assign a device template#

To enable correct communication between Coiote DM and Azure IoT Central, you need two templates. The first template configures the Coiote DM integration with Azure. (Follow this instruction to learn how to configure it.) The second template builds on the first one and allows to provide information that is used only in Azure IoT Central, e.g., that a given resource is temperature and is measured in Celsius.

Download LwM2M template in Coiote DM#

  1. In Coiote DM, go to Administration → Hyperscaler Integration Center and select the Templates tab.
  2. In the list of templates, find the one from which you want to generate the IoT Central template.
  3. Click Generate Azure IoT Central template to download the template as a JSON file.

Generate IoT Central dialect


Default minimal LwM2M schema and Default rich LwM2M schema are the default Azure integration templates that you can use to generate a template for Azure IoT Central. Default minimal LwM2M schema contains only two objects: LwM2M Server and Device that are necessary to connect a device to a LwM2M server. Default rich LwM2M schema contains some additional objects that describe the current state of a device. You can use these default templates to test your integration or for some basic operations. If you have a more complex case (e.g., your device contains other LwM2M objects), then you need to create a new template or copy and edit the default template.

Create a device template in Azure IoT Central#

  1. In your Azure IoT Central account, go to My apps from the left pane and click the tile with your Azure IoT Central account.

    CoioteDM Lwm2m Test

  2. To add a new device template, go to Device templates from the left pane and then click + New.

  3. On the Select type page, select the IoT device tile and click Next: Customize.

  4. Enter a name for your device template and click Next: Review. In this example, our device template is called watercapacity.

    Create new device template

  5. On the Review page, click Create.

  6. On the Create a model page, select the Import a model tile. This is where you need to import the .JSON file you exported from Coiote DM.

  7. On the Model page, click Publish to publish this device template to the application. In the pop-up window that appears, click Publish.

Click Publish on the top of the page to publish your template

Assign a device template in Azure IoT Central#

  1. To assign the published template to a device, go to Devices from the left pane and click on the device you want to observe. In our case, the device is called soilquality.

  2. Click Manage templates and choose Assign template.

    Assign a template

  3. In the pop-up window that appears, find the template you have previously created in Azure (in our case, this is watercapacity) and click Assign template.

Create a group#

Now that you have a device with a template assigned to it, you need to add this device to a group. To create a group:

  1. In Azure IoT Central, go to Device groups from the left pane and click + New.


    A device group can only contain devices from a single device template.

  2. Fill in the following information:

    • Group name and an optional description. In our case, the group is called soil.
    • Device group access: skip, because Lwm2m test application doesn’t use organizations.
    • Create a device query: from the Value drop-down menu, select the name of the device template you created in the previous step (watercapacity in our case). Click Run query.

After running a query, you will see the list of devices that are associated with this template. In our case it’s a device called soilquality. Click Save.

Create a device query

Set up an Observation#

Let’s set an Observation operation on resource ID 6/0/2. This is Altitude, and the data is sent as Telemetry.

To add an Observation, you need to use the Jobs tab.

  1. In Azure IoT Central, go to Jobs from the left pane and click + New job.

  2. Configure your job:

  3. Name *: Provide a name and an optional description of the job.
  4. Access: skip, because Lwm2m test application doesn’t use organizations.
  5. Target devices: choose which devices this job will run on.
  6. Job properties:

    • Set Job type as Property.
    • Under the Name field, select the resource you want to put the observation for and turn the toggle to True. In our case, the resource is Altitude (n6n0n2).
    • To add parameters to this observation, click + Add and select the respective parameters in the drop-down menu. Specify the attribute in the pop-up window that appears. In this tutorial, pmin is set at 1. It means that notifications will be sent every second.
    • Click Next.

    Job properties


    • pmin - the minimum time in seconds between two notifications.
    • pmax - the maximum time in seconds between two notifications. The notification is sent even if the value didn't change.

    Read more about other attributes in our Brief description of OMA LwM2M.

  7. In Delivery options, click Next.

  8. In Schedule, click Next.
  9. Review and click Run.

See value changes#

  1. In Azure IoT Central, go to Devices from the left pane and click on the device you observe. You will see the list of messages that notify about any changes in the desired and reported properties for this device.

  2. In the Raw data tab, unfold one of the recent messages. In the JSON snippet, you can see that an Observation has been set for a Telemetry resource ID n6n0n2 (objects, object instances, and resources are separated by n in Azure IoT Central).

    Raw data

To see the data received about the value changes, scroll right until you find the Altitude column. As this is a test example, the value is 0, but in real life, you will see the actual numbers.

Altitude column


If you don’t see any value in the relevant column (e.g., Altitude), scroll all the way right to the very last column Unmodeled data. If it contains an entry similar to {"n6n0n2":"1634741504000"}, it means there is a mismatch between Coiote DM and Azure IoT Central templates. Altitude is a Telemetry resource, but apparently it is set as Property in Azure. To fix this error, go to Device templates in Azure IoT Central, select the relevant template and find the resource you want to edit. In the Capability type column, select Telemetry from the drop-down menu so that it’s consistent with what you have in Coiote DM. Click Save. Go back to Devices and refresh the page to see the changes.

Check an Observation in Coiote#

This step is optional. If you want to make sure the Observation has been set in Coiote DM as well, do the following:

  1. Go to Device inventory → Objects.
  2. Find the resource you want to check. In our example, this is 2 Altitude resource in the 6 Location object.
  3. Click the refresh button to the left from the Value tracking. You will see that checkboxes next to Value tracking and Attributes are now filled in green.

Observed resources in Coiote DM

Edit or delete an Observation#

To edit or delete an Observation, you need to create a new job.

  • In Azure IoT Central, go to Jobs from the left pane and click + New job.
  • Alternatively, you can copy an existing job:
    1. Select the job and then click Copy job.
    2. To edit the Observation attributes, change the value in the text box. To change the map keys (e.g., pmax to pmin), click on the Ellipse button.
    3. To delete an Observation, turn off the toggle to False.

Edit or delete an Observation

Next steps#

Air quality monitoring - tutorial

Last update: December 1, 2021